Current & future applications and their required accuracies


  • H = horizontal accuracy
  • V = vertical accuracy
  • S = speed accuracy
  • 3D = all three spatial dimensions
Aviation applications Accuracy requirement
En-route navigation Low (H)
Initial approach, non-precision approach and departure Low (H)
Precision approach (Cat I) Medium (H)
High precision approach (Cat II/III) High (H)
High (V)
Surface movement V High (H)
Mid-air refuel V High (3D)
Formation flying V High (3D)
Helicopter en-route Low (H)
Helicopter approach NI
Automatic dependent surveillance –broadcast (ADS-B) Low (H)
Low (V)
Photogrammetry V High (H)
Road transport applications Accuracy requirement
In-car navigation Low
Fleet management Medium
Urban traffic control Medium
Emergency calls Low
Dynamic route guidance Low
Selective vehicle priority Low
Collision avoidance Medium
Automated highway High
Road pricing Medium
Intelligent speed assistance V High
Lane control V High
Stolen vehicle recovery Low
Restraint deployment High
Trip travel information Low
Marine applications Accuracy requirement
Ocean navigation Low (H)
High (S)
Coastal navigation Medium (H)
High (S)
Inland waterway navigation Medium (H)
High (S)
Tugs and pushers High (H)
High (S)
Icebreakers High (H)
High (S)
Automatic collision avoidance High (H)
Port approach High (H)
High (S)
Port V High (H)
High (S)
Automatic docking V High (H)
Hydrography Low to V High (H)
High to V High (V)
Dredging V High (H)
V High (V)
V High (S)
Construction V High (H)
V High (V)
Vessel traffic services High (H)
V High (S)
Cargo handling V High (H)
V High (V)
V High (S)
Rail applications Accuracy requirement
Signalling and train control
Infrastructure data collection High
End of movement authority Medium (Terminal)
Medium (Busy lines)
Low (Rural lines)
Supervision to buffer stops High
Speed profile calculation Medium (Terminal)
Medium (Busy lines)
Low (Rural lines)
Train location Medium (Terminal)
Medium (Busy lines)
Low (Rural lines)
Level crossing protection Medium (Terminal)
Medium (Busy lines)
Low (Rural lines)
High speed warning Low
Track-side personnel protection High
Geographical position of the train High
Power supply control High
Advisory station stop Medium (Terminal)
Medium (Busy lines)
Low (Rural lines)
Door control supervision Medium
Train integrity Medium
Train separation Medium (Terminal)
Medium (Busy lines)
Low (Rural lines)
Passenger information systems
Pre-trip information Low
On-trip information Low
Management information systems
Fleet management Low
Cargo monitoring Low
Rolling stock maintenance Low
Infrastructure testing and inspection High
Autonomous vehicle applications Accuracy requirement
Unmanned aerial vehicles High
Autonomous land-based vehicles High
Autonomous underwater vehicles Medium
Timing applications Accuracy requirement
Network synchronisation
Communications Medium
Digital broadcasting Medium
Power generation and distribution Low
Other applications
Satellite monitoring and
ground based navigation
Frequency/time calibration services High
Maintenance of International
time standards
Precision agriculture applications Accuracy requirement
Yield mapping High
Plot mapping High
Automatic guidance of farm machines High
Fisheries applications Accuracy requirement
Fishing Low
Yield analysis Medium
Fisheries monitoring Low
Oil and gas applications Accuracy requirement
Exploration High
Appraisal drilling High
Field development High
Support to production High
Post-production High
Emergency services vehicle applications Accuracy requirement
Emergency calls High
Fleet management for emergency vehicles High
Dynamic route guidance for emergency services High
Selective vehicle priority for emergency services Medium
Search and rescue
Maritime emergency and rescue operations High
Aviation emergency and rescue operations High
Pedestrian emergency and rescue operations Medium
Personnel protection
Aid for blind persons TBD
Persons suffering from Alzheimer’s disease TBD
Transport of physically
handicapped persons
Protection of very important persons High
Scientific applications Accuracy requirement
Geodesy and surveying V High (3D)
Global reference systems V High (3D)
Geodynamics V High (3D)
Geoid determination V High (3D)
Geographic information system V High (3D)
Environmental monitoring V High (3D)
Meteorology V High (3D)
Climate research V High (S)
Ionosphere V High (S)
Bridge/dam monitoring V High (3D)


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